Prophecy: When Israel grievously strayed into idolatry, God sent prophets to announce his plans for his people.

Though their proclamation often produced “foretelling” (i.e., predictions about the future), its main staple was “forthtelling” (i.e., announcements of imminent divine judgment in the present or near future).

Klein, Blomberg & Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation (2004), 359.


Textus Receptus: Latin for “received text.”

...The term is most often used in NT studies to refer to Erasmus’ Greek text of 1535. The Authorised, or King James, Version of the Bible is based upon the Textus Receptus.

The Textus Receptus is widely criticised today because of the haste with which it was produced and its heavy reliance on late rather than early Greek manuscripts.

Patzia & Petrotta, Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies (2002), 115.


Textual criticism: The scholarly discipline of establishing the text as near to the original as possible or probable (also known as lower criticism).

Since we no longer have any original manuscripts, or “autographs,” scholars must sort and evaluate the extant copies with their variant wordings.

...The textual critic not only sorts through manuscripts and fragments for copyist errors but also considers early translations (such as the Vulgate or Peshitta) and lectionaries for their witness to the text.

Patzia & Petrotta, Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies (2002), 114-115.


Second Temple Judaism: The period of Jewish history and literature from the time the second temple was completed around 516 B.C. to the fall of Jerusalem and destruction of Herod’s temple by the Romans in A.D. 70.

In current scholarly work it is gradually replacing the more common term “Intertestamental Period.”

Patzia & Petrotta, Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies (2002), 103.


Typology: Biblical comparisons and links made between persons, events, things and institutions of one biblical period and those of another, particularly between those of the OT and the NT.

The term is derived from the Greek word typos, meaning "impression, mark, image" and, by metaphorical extension, an example or model.

Typology is employed by the biblical authors to show continuity in God's plan, the "pattern in the carpet" of redemptive history.

Patzia & Petrotta, Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies (2002), 119-120.


Metonymy: A figure of speech in which one thing is designated by the mention of something associated with it (μετωνυμίαa, "a change of name") as in "The White House denied the allegations," which uses White House to mean the president or his staff.

See Romans 5:59; Colossians 1:16; 4:18.

DeMoss, Pocket Dictionary for the Study of New Testament Greek (2001), 84.


Metaphor: In general usage, an implied comparison in which the characteristics, qualities or actions of one thing are applied to another (e.g., speaking of God as shepherd).

A more sophisticated analysis of metaphor yields two elements: the tenor is the subject to which the metphoric word is applied; the vehicle is the metaphoric word itself (e.g., "God" is the tenor, and "shepherd" is the vehicle).

Patzia & Petrotta, Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies (2002), 79-80.